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Terms and their definitions:

Synthetic Phonic Instruction:

Teaches students the sounds associated with letters. Students analyse and synthesize (segment and blend) sounds and their letter representations in order to read or spell words.

Structured Phonics / Language Instruction:

Phonics / Language is taught in a predictable way. Processes and knowledge are taught in the same way and until automatic. The learning pathway is from easy to more complex skills.

Sequential Phonic / Language Instruction:

Phonics and language instruction that follows the sequence in which spelling, reading and language skills develop as determined by research.


Learner Assist follows Phonics Progression Charts (Scope and Sequence) as determined by the Sounds Write program, the Little Learners Love Literacy Program, the LETRS program, the SPELD SA Intensive Literacy Program and the charts reproduced by Dr Duncan Milne in Teaching The Brain - The New Science of Education (2014, Junior Learning). 

Professional Development completed in the use of the systematic synthetic programs: Sounds Write (2019), Sound Waves, LETRS and THRASS.

Multisensory: Using all the sensory modalities (visual / auditory / kinaesthetic - tactile, i.e. VAKT) as simultaneously and often as possible to promote learning of concepts.

Decoding: Applying knowledge of letter-sound relationships and patterns to read written words.

For a full definition of Decodable Books, what they are used for and how to use please visit :

For Alison Clarke's comprehensive list of decodable readers :    Visit the spelfabet website.


Irregular words: Words that cannot easily be decoded phonetically, as they contain at least one component that is irregular. 

Sight words: A written word that is recognised at a glance. It no longer needs to be identified by sounding out (decoding).

Encoding: Spelling a word. Hearing the word, segmenting it into its phonemes (sounds) and writing grapheme/s  (a letter or combination of letters) to represent each sound.

Orthographic mapping: Connecting graphemes (letters) in a written word with their phonemes (sounds).

The Simple View of Reading


                         Reading = Decoding (word recognition)  X   Language Comprehension

The Simple View of Writing:

- Tom Nicholson's article in the LDA Bulletin (Autumn 2019). Introduction to the Special Issue on Writing.


Reading Resources for Lower Primary Level include decodable texts: Fitzroy readers, the Little Learners Love Literacy series, the Sounds Write book series, Phonic Books series and Pocket Rockets to take home.

For Older Readers decodable texts include: Sounds Write decodables, the Talisman series, Titan's Gauntlet and Amber Guardians Phonic Book series are used. Also Judy Keen's Rip Rap series, Specky Magee and Jake Maddox books.

Simple view of Reading model (Gough and Tunmer, 1986).png
Simple View of Writing_edited.jpg

LETRS, 2019 LouisaMoats

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